Endnotes

1 Vera Institute of Justice, “Arrest Trends”; Vera Institute of Justice, “Incarceration Trends”; and “Fatal Force: Police Shootings Database,” database (Washington, DC: Washington Post, accessed January 10, 2022). See also Drew DeSilver, Michael Lipka, and Dalia Fahmy, “10 Things We Know about Race and Policing in the U.S.,” Pew Research Center, June 3, 2020; and John Jay College of Criminal Justice, and National Organization of Black Law Enforcement Executives, Future of Public Safety (New York: John Jay College of Criminal Justice, 2020), 5-8.

2 Justin Pickett, Amanda Graham, and Francis T. Cullen, “The American Racial Divide in Fear of the Police,” SocArXiv, April 13, 2021.

3 Brian Sharp, “Daniel Prude: One Year after His Death Became Public Fallout Continues,” Democrat and Chronicle, September 2, 2021; Dean Meminger, “Exclusive: Sister of Mentally Ill Senior Citizen Killed By NYPD Responds to Mayor's New Mental Health Initiative,” Spectrum News NY1, November 11, 2020; Amistad Law Project, “The Fight for Non-Police Responses to Mental Health Calls Continues,” Amistad Law Project, October 13, 2021; and Eric Westervelt, “Mental Health And Police Violence: How Crisis Intervention Teams Are Failing,” WBUR, September 18, 2020.

4 Jackson Beck, Melissa Reuland, and Leah Pope, “Behavioral Health Crisis Alternatives: Shifting from Police to Community Responses,” Vera Institute of Justice, November 2020; Vera Institute of Justice, Investing in Evidence-Based Alternatives to Policing: Civilian Crisis Response (New York: Vera Institute of Justice, 2021); and Council of State Governments Justice Center, “Expanding First Response: A Toolkit for Community Responder Programs.”

5 Kaitlin Gazi, Paula Verrett, and Keris Myrick, “Lived Experience Engagement and Race Equity: In This Together” (paper presented at the National Alliance on Mental Illness Integrating Peers in Crisis Response Services Webinar, August 10, 2021).

6 Rebecca Woolington and Melissa Lewis, “Portland Homeless Accounted For Majority Of Police Arrests In 2017, Analysis Finds,” The Oregonian, updated January 30, 2019.

7 Street Roots, “About,” accessed February 3, 2022; and Kaia Sand, “Believe Our Stories and Listen: Perspectives on First Response on the Streets,” Street Roots, September 19, 2019.

8 Kaia Sand, “Believe Our Stories and Listen: Perspectives on First Response on the Streets,” Street Roots, September 19, 2019.

9 Kaia Sand, “Believe Our Stories and Listen: Perspectives on First Response on the Streets,” Street Roots, September 19, 2019; and Greg Townley, Kaia Sand, and Thea Kindschuh, Believe Our Stories and Listen: Portland Street Response Survey Report (Portland, OR: Portland Street Response Community Outreach Workgroup, 2019).

10 Kaia Sand, “Believe Our Stories and Listen: Perspectives on First Response on the Streets,” Street Roots, September 19, 2019. For an overview of the community engagement work group’s goals and activities, see The Justice Collaborative Policing Task Force, Developing a Community-Based Emergency First Responders (EFR) Program (San Francisco: The Justice Collaborative Institute, 2020), 40-43.

11 Reach Out Response Network, Final Report on Alternative Crisis Response Models for Toronto (Toronto, ON: Reach Out Response Network, 2020), 5.

12 Reach Out Response Network, Final Report on Alternative Crisis Response Models for Toronto (Toronto, ON: Reach Out Response Network, 2020).

13 Reach Out Response Network, Final Report on Alternative Crisis Response Models for Toronto (Toronto, ON: Reach Out Response Network, 2020), 5.

14 The core planning team for San Francisco’s Street Crisis Response Team included a peer specialist from RAMS Inc., one of the program’s service providers. San Francisco Department of Public Health, Street Crisis Response Team Issue Brief (San Francisco: San Francisco Department of Public Health, 2021), 1.

15 Interviews 25, 27, and 28. For example, since 2020, six local clubhouses that are affiliated with Fountain House’s national network have been leading local campaigns to “advocate locally or statewide for public health responses to mental health crisis.” Fountain House, “The Care Responders Campaign—Ensuring that Mental Health Emergencies Receive the Right Public Health Response.”

16 Interview 32.

17 According to representatives from OCMH, New York City’s work to improve crisis response and plan the B-HEARD pilot was developed with the NYC Crisis Prevention and Response Task Force, which includes advocates, city agency leadership, and community members. For more information, see Mayor’s Office of Community Mental Health, “New York City Announces New Mental Health Teams to Respond to Mental Health Crises,” November 10, 2020.

18 Interview 05.

19 Interview 01.

20 P.R. Lockhart, “Living While Black and the Criminalization of Blackness,” Vox, August 1, 2018; and Jim Parsons & Frankie Wunschel, “Changing Police Practices Means Changing 911,” Vera Institute of Justice, September 29, 2020.

21 Katrina Feldkamp and S. Rebecca Neusteter, “The Little Known, Racist History of the 911 Emergency Call System,” In These Times, January 26, 2021.

22 S. Rebecca Neusteter, Megan O’Toole, Mawia Khogali, et al., Understanding Police Enforcement: A Multicity 911 Analysis (New York: Vera Institute of Justice, 2020); and Amos Irwin & Betsy Pearl, “The Community Responder Model,” Center for American Progress, October 28, 2020.

23 Interview 14

24 NAMI, “988: Reimaging Crisis Response.”

25 Jackson Beck, Melissa Reuland, and Leah Pope, “Case Study: CAHOOTS,” Vera Institute of Justice, November 2020; and White Bird Clinic, “CAHOOTS.” After receiving input from community members, Eugene is exploring a separate phone line for CAHOOTS that would be disconnected from the police department.

26 Greg Townley and Emily Leickly, Portland Street Response: Six-Month Evaluation (Portland, OR: Portland State University Homelessness Research & Action Collaborative, 2021), 10. During its pilot period, PSR has encouraged community members to specifically request PSR when they call 911. Portland Street Response, “Portland Street Response Frequently Asked Questions,” Portland.gov.

27 City of Rochester, “Crisis Intervention Services,” CityofRochester.gov; and Daniele Lyman-Torres and Alia Henton-Williams, Person in Crisis Team Pilot Plan (Rochester, NY: Rochester Department of Recreation and Human Services, 2021).

28 In the United States, 211 has been designated by the FCC as the three-digit number for information and referrals to social services and other assistance. In some communities, including Rochester and the Finger Lakes region, 211 is operated by a service provider that also provides 24/7 crisis line services. 211, “About 211”; 211 Life Line, “About Us”; and Daniele Lyman-Torres and Alia Henton-Williams, Person in Crisis Team Pilot Plan (Rochester, NY: Rochester Department of Recreation and Human Services, 2021).

29 Daniele Lyman-Torres and Alia Henton-Williams, Person in Crisis Team Pilot Plan (Rochester, NY: Rochester Department of Recreation and Human Services, 2021), 3; and City of Rochester, “Crisis Intervention Services,” CityofRochester.gov.

30 Interview 26.

31 Interview 21.

32 Interview 03.

33 Reach Out Response Network, Final Report on Alternative Crisis Response Models for Toronto (Toronto, ON: Reach Out Response Network, 2020), 54-60.

34 Federal Communications Commission, “Video Relay Service (VRS).”

35 Interview 9; Federal Communications Commission, “Text to 911: What You Need to Know”; and “Text 911 Master PSAP Registry.”

36 Veronica Stracqualursi, “FCC Approves Texting '988' To Reach National Suicide Prevention Lifeline By Next Year,” CNN, November 18, 2021; and Stephanie Hepburn, “988 and Deaf Services,” #CrisisTalk, February 22, 2022.

37 Vera Institute of Justice, “911 Analysis: How Civilian Crisis Responders Can Divert Behavioral Health Calls from Police,” April 11, 2022.

38 David Graham, “The Stumbling Block to One of the Most Promising Police Reforms,” The Atlantic, February 22, 2022.

39 Interview 18; “Community Assistance and Life Liaison Pilot Evaluation Report,” St. Petersburg Police Department, 2021, on file with authors.

40 Interview 18.

41 Pew Charitable Trusts, New Research Suggests 911 Call Centers Lack Resources to Handle Behavioral Health Crises (Washington, DC: Pew Charitable Trusts, 2021), 2, 6-7.

42 Pew Charitable Trusts, New Research Suggests 911 Call Centers Lack Resources to Handle Behavioral Health Crises (Washington, DC: Pew Charitable Trusts, 2021), 7.

43 Jackson Beck, Melissa Reuland, and Leah Pope, Behavioral Health Crisis Alternatives, Case Study: Robust Crisis Care and Diverting 911 Calls to Crisis Lines: Phoenix, AZ (New York: Vera Institute of Justice, 2020); and Stephanie Hepburn, “Embedding Crisis Response in Harris County’s 911 Dispatch Center,” #CrisisTalk, December 14, 2021.

44 Interview 26.

45 Jennifer L. Eberhardt, Phillip Atiba Goff, Valerie J. Purdie et al., “Seeing Black: Race, Crime, and Visual Processing,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 87, no. 6 (2004), 876-93. Research has explored the role that implicit and other cognitive biases play in perpetuating racial disparities across the criminal legal system—for example, in police shootings see Joshua Correll, Sean M. Hudson, Steffanie Guillermo, et al., “The Police Officer‘s Dilemma: A Decade of Research on Racial Bias in the Decision to Shoot,” Social and Personality Psychology Compass 8, no. 5 (2014), 201-213; in criminal case processing see Vanessa Meterko and Glinda Cooper, “Cognitive Biases in Criminal Case Evaluation: A Review of the Research,” Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology (2021); and in the triage practices of public defenders see L. Song Richardson and Phillip Atiba Goff, “Implicit Racial Bias in Public Defender Triage,” The Yale Law Journal 122, no. 8 (2013), 2626-2649.

46 Protocols to support operators may range from written policies and guides to scripts, screening questions, and decision trees. For more information and examples, see Jackson Beck, Melissa Reuland, and Leah Pope, “Case Study: Robust Crisis Care and Diverting 911 Calls to Crisis Lines,” Vera Institute of Justice, November 2020; Portland.gov., “Portland Street Response Frequently Asked Questions,” 2022; Transform 911, Transforming 911: Assessing the Landscape and Identifying New Areas of Action and Inquiry - Chapter Four: Emergency Communications Center Operations (Chicago: The University of Chicago Health Lab, 2022).

47 Jessica W. Gillooly, “‘Lights and Sirens’: Variation in 911 Operator Risk Appraisal and its Effects on Police Officer Perceptions at the Scene,” Journal of Policy Analysis and Management (forthcoming).

48 Jessica Gillooly, “Op-Ed: The First Lesson Of Fielding 911 Calls: Don’t Be Alarmist,” Los Angeles Times, January 7th, 2022; Jessica W. Gillooly, "How 911 Callers and Call‐takers Impact Police Encounters with the Public: The Case of the Henry Louis Gates Jr. Arrest," Criminology & Public Policy 19, no. 3 (2020): 787-804; Roge Karma, “Want to Fix Policing? Start with a Better 911 System,” Vox, August 10, 2020.

49 Katherine Beckett, Forrest Stuart and Monica Bell, “From Crisis to Care,” Inquest, September 2, 2021.

50 Interview 18.

51 “Community Assistance and Life Liaison Pilot Evaluation Report,” St Petersburg Police, 2021. On file with authors.

52 During its first three months, only 23 percent of the emergency mental health calls made in the pilot location were routed to B-HEARD. This was attributed to a lack of resources and personnel for B-HEARD, as well as the discretionary judgement of dispatchers around assessing risk of imminent harm. Caroline Lewis, “NYC Tried To Remove NYPD From 911 Mental Health Emergencies—But It’s Had Little Success,” Gothamist, October 22, 2021.

53 Interview 32.

54 Ibid.

55 San Francisco Department of Public Health, Street Crisis Response Team Issue Brief (San Francisco: San Francisco Department of Public Health, 2021), 2; and San Francisco Department of Public Health, Street Crisis Response Team (SCRT) Pilot - August 2021 Update (San Francisco: San Francisco Department of Public Health, 2021).

56 Robert Smuts and Simon Pang, “Transitioning 911 Response: San Francisco’s Street Crisis Response Team (SCRT) Pilot Program” (presentation at the Transforming Dispatch and Crisis Response Services: Meeting Challenges with Innovation webinar, hosted by The Academic Training to Inform Police Responses, March 2, 2021).

57 Teams of civilian crisis responders are often referred to as “mobile crisis teams” and are an important feature of robust crisis systems. However, they have not historically been implemented with the ability to answer 911 calls as an alternative to police. SAMHSA’s crisis care guidelines recommend that mobile crisis teams have at least two people, including at least one licensed and/or credentialed clinician who can assess the needs of people in crisis. SAMHSA, National Guidelines for Behavioral Health Crisis Care – Best Practice Toolkit (Washington, DC: SAMHSA, 2020). Vera defines “mobile crisis teams” as teams composed variously of medics, crisis workers, and/or peers available to respond to people in crisis and provide immediate stabilization and referral to community-based mental health services and supports. See Jackson Beck, Melissa Reuland, Leah Pope, “Behavioral Health Crisis Alternatives,” Vera Institute of Justice, November 2020. Acknowledging workforce and healthcare system limitations, some national experts have called for a new kind of crisis response professional to staff these teams. Jennifer J. Carroll, Taleed El-Sabawi, Dan Fichter, et al., “The Workforce For Non-Police Behavioral Health Crisis Response Doesn’t Exist - We Need To Create It,” Health Affairs, September 8, 2021.

58 Interview 02.

59 Susan Walker, Euan Mackay, Phoebe Barnett, et al., “Clinical and Social Factors Associated with Increased Risk for Involuntary Psychiatric Hospitalisation: A Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis, And Narrative Synthesis,” Lancet Psychiatry 6, no. 12 (2019), 1039-1053; Jeffrey Swanson, Marvin Swartz, Richard A. Van Dorn, et al., “Racial Disparities in Involuntary Outpatient Commitment: Are They Real?,” Health Affairs 28, no. 3 (2009), 816-826; Jossie A Carreras Tartak, Nicholas Brisbon, Sarah Wilkie, et al., “Racial And Ethnic Disparities In Emergency Department Restraint Use: A Multicenter Retrospective Analysis,” Academic Emergency Medicine 28, no. 9 (2021), 957-965; and Katie Brooks Biello, James Rawlings, Amy Carroll-Scott, et al., “Racial Disparities in Age at Preventable Hospitalization Among U.S. Adults,” American Journal of Preventative Medicine 38, no. 1 (2010), 54-60.

60 Interview 34.

61 Jennifer J. Carroll, Taleed El-Sabawi, Dan Fichter, et al., “The Workforce For Non-Police Behavioral Health Crisis Response Doesn’t Exist - We Need To Create It,” Health Affairs, September 8, 2021.

62 NYCLU, “NYCLU Calls For Immediate Action Regarding The Policing Of Protestors, Responses To Residents In Mental Health Crisis, And Transparency On Police-Involved Deaths,” letter to Rochester, NY, Mayor Lovely Warren, October 7, 2020.

63 Interview 26; and United States Census Bureau, “QuickFacts: Rochester, New York.”

64 Interview 26.

65 Ibid.

66 Interview 18.

67 Ibid.

68 Interview 30.

69 SAMHSA, National Guidelines for Behavioral Health Crisis Care – Best Practice Toolkit (Washington, DC: SAMHSA, 2020), 18-21.

70 For an overview of key functions of peer support in the behavioral health system, including crisis support, wellness planning, and linkage to resources, see Philadelphia Dept. of Behavioral Health and Intellectual Disabilities Services and Achara Consulting Inc. “Peer Support Toolkit,” (Philadelphia, PA: DBHIDS, 2017).

71 Interview 19; Stephanie Hepburn, “The Chronic Misunderstanding of the Peer Role in Behavioral Health,” #CrisisTalk, August 10, 2021; Jennifer J. Carroll, Taleed El-Sabawi, Dan Fichter, et al., “The Workforce For Non-Police Behavioral Health Crisis Response Doesn’t Exist - We Need To Create It,” Health Affairs, September 8, 2021; Council of State Governments Justice Center, Advancing the Work of Peer Support Specialists in Behavioral Health-Criminal Justice Programming (New York: CSG Justice Center, 2021).

72 City & County of San Francisco, “What is the Street Crisis Response Team?

73 RAMS, “Division of Peer-Based Services.”

74 Interview 29.

75 Ali Velshi, “Chief Simon Pang on how San Francisco is Transforming Policing,” MSNBC, broadcast April 18, 2021.

76 City & County of San Francisco, “What is the Street Crisis Response Team?” San Francisco, “Street Crisis Response Team 9-2-21,” uploaded September 3, 2021, YouTube video, 4:04.

77 Reach Out Response Network, Report on International Crisis Response Team Trainings (Toronto, ON: Reach Out Response Network, 2021), 14.

78 Stephanie Hepburn, “The Chronic Misunderstanding of the Peer Role in Behavioral Health,” #CrisisTalk, August 10, 2021.

79 Reach Out Response Network, Report on International Crisis Response Team Trainings (Toronto, ON: Reach Out Response Network, 2021), 14.

80 Reach Out Response Network, Report on International Crisis Response Team Trainings (Toronto, ON: Reach Out Response Network, 2021), 14; and Interview 29.

81 Interview 29.

82 Interview 32.

83 Jenée Desmond-Harris, “Implicit Bias Means We’re All Probably At Least A Little Bit Racist,” Vox, August 15, 2016.

84 Yesenia Merino, Leslie Adams, and William J. Hall, “Implicit Bias and Mental Health Professionals: Priorities and Directions for Research,” Psychiatric Services 69, no. 6 (2018).

85 Patrick S. Forscher, Calvin K. Lai, Jordan R. Ast, et al., “A Meta-Analysis Of Procedures To Change Implicit Measures,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 117, no. 3 (2019), 522-59; Calvin K. Lai, Allison L. Skinner, Erin Cooley, et al., “Reducing Implicit Racial Preferences: II. Intervention Effectiveness Across Time,” Journal of Experimental Psychology, 145, no. 8 (2016), 1001-1016; and Tonya Mosley, “Why Implicit Bias Training for Police Doesn’t Work – And What Can Be Done to Combat Racism,” interview with Jack Glaser, WBUR, aired April 22, 2021.

86 Interview 32.

87 Interview 18; Reach Out Response Network, Report on International Crisis Response Team Trainings (Toronto, ON: Reach Out Response Network, 2021), 9, 16.

88 Mia Antezzo, Jodi Manz, Eliza Mette, et al., “State Strategies to Increase Diversity in the Behavioral Health Workforce,” National Academy for State Health Policy, December 13, 2021.

89 Behavioral Health + Economics Network, Addressing the Behavioral Health Workforce Shortage (Washington, DC: Behavioral Health + Economics Network, 2018); and Wolfram A. Brandt, Christoph J. Bielitz, and Alexander Georgi, “The Impact of Staff Turnover and Staff Density on Treatment Quality in a Psychiatric Clinic,” Frontiers in Psychology 7 (2016).

90 Ebony Morgan and Rory Elliott, “CAHOOTS Asks for at Least 5% of Community Safety Initiative Budget Funds,” press release (Eugene, OR: White Bird Clinic, May 20, 2021).

91 Eugene Police Department Crime Analysis Unit, CAHOOTS Program Analysis (Eugene, OR: Eugene Police Crime Analysis Unit, 2020); and Ebony Morgan and Rory Elliott, “CAHOOTS Asks for at Least 5% of Community Safety Initiative Budget Funds,” press release (Eugene, OR: White Bird Clinic, May 20, 2021).

92 Ebony Morgan and Rory Elliott, “CAHOOTS Asks for at Least 5% of Community Safety Initiative Budget Funds,” press release (Eugene, OR: White Bird Clinic, May 20, 2021); and Contract between the City of Eugene and the Eugene Police Employees Association, effective July 1, 2019, Appendix A.

93 Ebony Morgan and Rory Elliott, “CAHOOTS Asks for at Least 5% of Community Safety Initiative Budget Funds,” press release (Eugene, OR: White Bird Clinic, May 20, 2021).

94 Ibid.

95 Jackson Beck, Melissa Reuland, and Leah Pope, “Case Study: CRU and Familiar Faces,” Vera Institute of Justice, November 2020.

96 Interview 30.

97 Ibid.

98 Anne Larsen, “What’s up with CRU, Olympia’s Crisis Response Unit,” IFIBER One News, July 13, 2021; JOLT Staff, “Familiar Faces Program Becomes a Permanent Part of Downtown Services,” JOLT, July 6, 2021; and Interview 30.

99 Interview 30.

100 Jo Ann Hardesty, “My View: Increase Portland Street Response Funding,” Portland Tribune, May 12, 2021.

101 Rebecca Ellis, “$5.7 billion City Budget Does Not Fully Fund Portland Street Response,” Oregon Public Broadcasting, May 14, 2021.

102 Greg Townley and Emily Leickly, Portland Street Response: Six-Month Evaluation (Portland, OR: Portland State University Homelessness Research & Action Collaborative, 2021), 10; Jo Ann Hardesty, “Commissioner Hardesty Requests Funding In Fall Budget Monitoring Process To Allow Citywide Expansion Of Portland Street Response,” press release (Portland, OR: Office of Commissioner Jo Ann Hardesty, October 6, 2021); and Rebecca Ellis, “Portland City Council OKs Money For Police Body Cameras, More Homeless Services,” Oregon Public Broadcasting, November 17, 2021.

103 Interview 30; and Jo Ann Hardesty, “My View: Increase Portland Street Response Funding,” Portland Tribune, May 12, 2021.

104 Jo Ann Hardesty, “My View: Increase Portland Street Response Funding,” Portland Tribune, May 12, 2021; and Greg Townley and Emily Leickly, Portland Street Response: Six-Month Evaluation (Portland, OR: Portland State University Homelessness Research & Action Collaborative, 2021), 10.

105 For example, before launching the Mobile Assistance Community Responders of Oakland (MACRO) pilot program in Oakland, California, under the oversight of the Oakland Fire Department, stakeholders noted the benefits of embedding included access to the existing 911 dispatch system. The city also considered contracting with existing service providers in order to staff the program and speed its launch. Natalie Orenstein, “Call 911 for a Counselor? Oakland Will Pilot One Alternative To Police,” Oaklandside, June 29, 2020; and Natalie Orenstein, “It’s Decided: The Oakland Fire Department Will Run MACRO, a New Non-Police Emergency Response Program,” Oaklandside, March 4, 2021.

106 Taleed El-Sabawi and Jennifer J. Carroll, “A Model for Defunding: An Evidence-Based Statute for Behavioral Health Crisis Response,” Temple Law Review 94 (2022), 59 (working paper).

107 Taleed El-Sabawi and Jennifer J. Carroll, “A Model for Defunding: An Evidence-Based Statute for Behavioral Health Crisis Response,” Temple Law Review 94 (2022), 56 (working paper).

108 Interview 18.

109 Ibid.

110 CCIT-NYC, “Our Proposal.”

111 Interview 35; and Allegheny County Department of Human Services, Improving Crisis Prevention and Response (Pittsburgh, PA: Allegheny County Department of Human Services, 2022).

112 Anil Arora, Toronto: A Data Story on Ethnocultural Diversity and Inclusion in Canada (Ottawa, ON: Statistics Canada, 2019); City of Toronto, “City Of Toronto Announces Four Community Partners As Part Of The Launch Of The Community Crisis Support Service Pilot,” press release (Toronto, ON: City of Toronto, January 19, 2022).

113 Interview 15.

114 Council of State Governments Justice Center, “Expanding First Response: Albuquerque Community Safety Department—Albuquerque, NM.”

115 Ibid.

116 City of Sacramento Office of Community Response, “Department of Community Response”;

Dusty Christensen, “Northampton Hires Director to Set up Community Care Department,” Daily Hampshire Gazette, November 10, 2021; and Olivia Deng, “Heart Proposal Is Heard as a Policing Alternative, but City Moves Ahead on Community Safety Office,” Cambridge Day, December 25, 2021.

117 P.R. Lockhart, “Living While Black and the Criminalization of Blackness,” Vox, August 1, 2018; Jim Parsons & Frankie Wunschel, “Changing Police Practices Means Changing 911,” Vera Institute of Justice, September 29, 2020; Vera Institute of Justice, “Arrest Trends”; Vera Institute of Justice, “Incarceration Trends”; “Fatal Force: Police Shootings Database,” database (Washington, DC: Washington Post, accessed January 10, 2022); and Mel Langness and Gabi Velasco, “'No Cops at Pride’: How the Criminal Justice System Harms LGBTQ People,” Urban Institute, June 30, 2020.

118 Sirry Alang, Donna D. McAlpine, and Rachel Hardeman, “Police Brutality and Mistrust in Medical Institutions,” Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities 7, no. 4 (2020), 760-768; Katrina Armstrong, Karima L. Ravenell, Suzanne McMurphy, et al., “Racial/Ethnic Differences in Physician Distrust in the United States,” American Journal of Public Health 97, no. 7 (2007), 1283-1289.

119 J. Corey Williams, “Black Americans Don’t Trust Our Healthcare System—Here’s Why,” The Hill, August 24, 2017; and Susan Walker, Euan Mackay, Phoebe Barnett, et al., “Clinical and Social Factors Associated with Increased Risk for Involuntary Psychiatric Hospitalisation: A Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis, And Narrative Synthesis,” Lancet Psychiatry 6, no. 12 (2019), 1039-1053.

120 Kathryn Krase, “Sterilization Abuse: The Policies Behind the Practice,” National Women’s Health Network, January 5, 1996; and National Alliance on Mental Illness, “Hispanic/Latinx,” accessed March 16, 2022.

121 Brian Mastroianni, “Experts Say Gender-Affirming Medical Care Can Be Lifesaving for Youth,” Healthline, March 1, 2022; and Trans Lifeline, “Why No Non-Consensual Active Rescue?” June 2, 2018.

122 Interview 11.

123 John Draper, Gillian Murphy, Eduardo Vega, et al., “Helping Callers to the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline Who Are at Imminent Risk of Suicide: The Importance of Active Engagement, Active Rescue, and Collaboration Between Crisis and Emergency Services,” Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior 45, no. 3 (2015), 261-270, 264.

124 John Draper, Gillian Murphy, Eduardo Vega, et al., “Helping Callers to the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline Who Are at Imminent Risk of Suicide: The Importance of Active Engagement, Active Rescue, and Collaboration Between Crisis and Emergency Services,” Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior 45, no. 3 (2015), 261-270, 267; and National Council for Mental Wellbeing, Crisis Services Survey Report (Washington, DC: National Council for Mental Wellbeing, 2019), 9.

125 Trans Lifeline, “Why No Non-Consensual Active Rescue?” June 2, 2018; and Trans Lifeline, “Cops Out of Crisis Calls: Meet Our New Advocacy Department.”

126 Ibid.

127 Call BlackLine, “About/FAQ”; and Tiana Headley, “Call BlackLine: Community Care and Liberation on Speed Dial,” The River, February 1, 2021.

128 Interview 16.

129 Interview 20, Participant A; and Eugene Police Department Crime Analysis Unit, CAHOOTS Program Analysis (Eugene, OR: Eugene Police Crime Analysis Unit, 2020).

130 Interview 20, Participant B. For an overview of state laws governing involuntary mental health treatment and mental health professionals’ duty to warn, see Leslie C. Hedman, John Petrila, William H. Fisher, et al., “State Laws on Emergency Holds for Mental Health Stabilization,” Psychiatric Services 67, no. 5 (2016), 529-535; Treatment Advocacy Center, “State Treatment Laws”; and National Conference of State Legislatures, “Mental Health Professionals’ Duty to Warn.”

131 Interview 20. See also Diana Paksarian, Ramin Mojtabai, Bernadette Cullen, et al., “Perceptions of Hospitalization-Related Trauma and Treatment Participation Among Individuals with Psychotic Disorders,” Psychiatric Services 65, no. 2 (2014), 266-269.

132 Mimi E. Kim, Megyung Chung, Shira Hassan, et al., Defund the Police - Invest in Community Care: A Guide to Alternative Mental Health Responses (New York: Interrupting Criminalization, 2021).

133 Interview 20, Participants A and B.

134 Anti Police-Terror Project, “M.H. First.”

135 City of Oakland, Cal., Ordinance No. 13644 (March 16, 2021); and Mimi E. Kim, Megyung Chung, Shira Hassan, et al., Defund the Police - Invest in Community Care: A Guide to Alternative Mental Health Responses (New York: Interrupting Criminalization, 2021), 30-31.

136 Mimi E. Kim, Megyung Chung, Shira Hassan, et al., “Defund the Police - Invest in Community Care: A Guide to Alternative Mental Health Responses (New York: Interrupting Criminalization, 2021), 29.

137 Rosalio Ahumada, “'We Don’t Need Police, Period.’ Who Should Handle Mental Health 911 Calls In Sacramento?,” Sacramento Bee, March 25, 2021; and Mimi E. Kim, Megyung Chung, Shira Hassan, et al., Defund the Police - Invest in Community Care: A Guide to Alternative Mental Health Responses (New York: Interrupting Criminalization, 2021), 29.

138 For additional resources on key metrics for crisis response programs, see Clifford Courvoisier, “Explainer: Using Data to Improve the Effectiveness of Community Responder Programs,” CSG Justice Center, October 11, 2021.

139 For more on racial equity and health equity impact assessment strategies, see Race Forward, Racial Equity Impact Assessment (Washington, DC: Race Forward, 2009); Wellesley Institute, “Health Equity Impact Assessment”; Sosunmolu Shoyinka, Rachel Talley, and Kenneth Minkoff, Self-Assessment for Modification of Anti-Racism Tool (SMART) (Dallas, TX: American Association for Community Psychiatry, 2021); and Color of Pain, “Racial and Ethnic Impact Statements.”

140 San Francisco Department of Public Health, Street Crisis Response Team Issue Brief (San Francisco: San Francisco Department of Public Health, 2021), 6.

141 David Sachs, “People Who Have Been Demanding Police Alternatives For Years Want The City To Yield Some Control Of Its Young Program,” Denverite, April 1, 2021; and David Sachs, “In the First Six Months of Health Care Professionals Replacing Police Officers, No One They Encountered Was Arrested,” Denverite, February 2, 2021.

142 Interview 22; and Greg Townley and Emily Leickly, Portland Street Response: Six-Month Evaluation (Portland, OR: Portland State University Homelessness Research & Action Collaborative, 2021), 48.

143 Interview 15.

144 Ibid.

145 Greg Townley and Emily Leickly, Portland Street Response: Six-Month Evaluation (Portland, OR: Portland State University Homelessness Research & Action Collaborative, 2021), 86.

146 San Francisco Department of Public Health, Street Crisis Response Team Issue Brief (San Francisco: San Francisco Department of Public Health, 2021); Interview 32.

147 Jim Parsons & Frankie Wunschel, “Changing Police Practices Means Changing 911,” Vera Institute of Justice, September 29, 2020.

148 Interview 22.

149 Greg Townley and Emily Leickly, Portland Street Response: Six-Month Evaluation (Portland, OR: Portland State University Homelessness Research & Action Collaborative, 2021), 35-36, 82.

150 For more on how post-call surveys have been used to evaluate and provide feedback to the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline, see Stephanie Hepburn, “Dr. Madelyn Gould on How Automation Creates a Crisis-Intervention Feedback Loop,” #CrisisTalk, January 18, 2022.

151 Greg Townley and Emily Leickly, Portland Street Response: Six-Month Evaluation (Portland, OR: Portland State University Homelessness Research & Action Collaborative, 2021), 8.

152 Interview 30.

153 One piece of model legislation requires crisis response programs to share a standardized set of data on calls received, services provided, and demographic information on program participants with an established advisory board and the public on a quarterly basis. Taleed El-Sabawi and Jennifer J. Carroll, “A Model for Defunding: An Evidence-Based Statute for Behavioral Health Crisis Response,” Temple Law Review 94 (2022), Appendix A. See also CCIT-NYC, “Our Proposal.”

154 Portland Street Response, “Portland Street Response Data Dashboard,” database (Portland, OR: Portland Street Response); SCRT, “What is the Street Crisis Response Team?”; and New York Mayor’s Office of Community Mental Health, “B-HEARD.”

155 Interview 22.

156 Greg Townley and Emily Leickly, Portland Street Response: Six-Month Evaluation (Portland, OR: Portland State University Homelessness Research & Action Collaborative, 2021), 31.

157 San Francisco Department of Public Health, Street Crisis Response Team Issue Brief (San Francisco: San Francisco Department of Public Health, 2021), 4.

158 Interview 26.

159 Interview 05.

160 Interview 10. See also Joseph De Angelis, Richard Rosenthal, and Brian Buchner, Civilian Oversight of Law Enforcement: A Review of the Strengths and Weaknesses of Various Models (Washington, DC: OJP Diagnostic Center, 2016); Will Cleveland, “Rochester Police Accountability board stripped of disciplinary powers, court rules,” Rochester Democrat & Chronicle, May 7, 2020; and Vinnie Cervantes, “Here Are 4 Areas the next Denver Police Monitor Should Focus On,” Colorado Newsline, March 9, 2022.

161 Taleed El-Sabawi and Jennifer J. Carroll, “A Model for Defunding: An Evidence-Based Statute for Behavioral Health Crisis Response,” Temple Law Review 94 (2022), 66-67 (working paper).

162 Interview 21.

163 David Sachs, “Denver’s STAR Program, Sending Mental Health Pros on Certain Calls Instead of Police Officers, is about to Get Bigger,” Denverite, August 30, 2021.

164 City of Denver, “DDPHE to Expand STAR Program After Successful Pilot,” press release (Denver: Co: City of Denver, August 30, 2021).

165 Interview 34; For more on the community demands of STAR, see STAR Expansion Committee, Charter and Proposals for Expansion (Denver, CO: STAR Expansion Committee, 2021).

166 Interview 34; and David Sachs, “People Who Have Been Demanding Police Alternatives For Years Want The City To Yield Some Control Of Its Young Program,” Denverite, April 1, 2021.

167 Taleed El-Sabawi and Jennifer J. Carroll, “A Model for Defunding: An Evidence-Based Statute for Behavioral Health Crisis Response,” Temple Law Review 94 (2022), 47-48 (working paper).

168 Interview 10.

169 CCIT-NYC, “Our Proposal.”

170 Interview 31.

171 Ibid.

172 CA Prop. 63, “Mental Health Services Act” (2004).

173 Interview 21. For more information about Los Angeles County Department of Mental Health’s stakeholder engagement process for groups that have been historically underserved, see Los Angeles County Department of Mental Health, “Underserved Cultural Communities (UsCC),” updated September 22, 2021.